Candidates with certified CCNP can be treated as professionals who are able to handle large company or enterprise network around 100 – 500 nodes including installation and daily operation with LAN (Local Area Network), WAN (Wide Area Network) and dial up businesses which indicated the candidates got plenty of network knowledge and experiences as well.
Most of the ancient technologies like frame relay has been obtained in existing exams and the most common topic such as routing, switching remote sites technologies, network security, collaboration and those technologies commonly exist in the environment of service providers has been introduced in the new syllabus.
These changes enhanced the practicality with different zones instead of limited in network transmission only.
Certified candidates has been indicated as professional who are able to even install, maintain and troubleshoot with complex network with LANs and WANs, core devices such as routers and switches, collaboration and wireless between 100 – 500 nodes in access level towards edges.
IS-IS (Intermediate System to Intermediate System)
This module provides a technical overview of the Integrated Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS) routing protocol. IS-IS is a link-state Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP). Link-state protocols are characterized by the propagation of the information required to build a complete network connectivity map on each participating device. That map is then used to calculate the shortest path to destinations.
The IS-IS protocol was developed in the late 1980s by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) and was standardized by the International Standards Organization (ISO) in ISO/IEC 10589. The current version of this standard is ISO/IEC 10589:2002.
ISO/IEC 10589 defines support for the ISO Connectionless Network Protocol (CLNP) as defined in ISO 8473. However, the protocol was designed to be extensible to other network protocols. RFC 1195 defined IS-IS support for IP, and additional IETF extensions have defined IS-IS support for IPv6. Integration of support for multiple network layer protocols has led to the term Integrated IS-IS. The Cisco IOS IS-IS implementation supports CLNP, IPv4, and IPv6. This module and its related modules use the term IS-IS to refer to the Integrated IS-IS that is implemented by Cisco IOS software.
A routing domain may be divided into one or more subdomains. Each subdomain is referred to as an area and is assigned an area address. Routing within an area is referred to as Level-1 routing. Routing between Level-1 areas is referred to as Level-2 routing. A device in Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) terminology is referred to as an Intermediate System (IS). An IS may operate at Level 1, Level 2, or both. ISs that operate at Level 1 exchange routing information with other Level-1 ISs in the same area. ISs that operate at Level 2 exchange routing information with other Level-2 devices regardless of whether they are in the same Level-1 area. The set of Level-2 devices and the links that interconnect them form the Level-2 subdomain, which must not be partitioned in order for routing to work properly.
Cisco IOS® Software is the world's leading network infrastructure software, delivering a seamless integration of technology innovation, business-critical services, and hardware platform support. Currently operating on millions of active systems, ranging from the small home office router to the core systems of the world's largest service provider networks, Cisco IOS Software is the most widely leveraged network infrastructure software in the world.
Cisco IOS is an optimized platform apart from NOS such as Novell and NetWare and it’s a complicated operating system and it’s a separated structure with software and hardware. As the continues growth with network technology, Cisco ISO treated as the internetwork central gateway with a high technology based administrator to manage and control complex distribution network and resources allocation by promoting it’s hardware and operating system.
IGP (Interior Gateway Protocols)
IGP is a kind of protocols implementing within an autonomous system (AS) like an independent system and network within a dedicated area for gateways exchanging their traffic and protocols. It is determine how traffic flows with the network and path selection by using Internet Protocol (IP) or other kinds of static and dynamic protocols.
Common IGP shows as below.
Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)
Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS)
IP version 6 (IPv6)
IPv6 is the next generation internet protocol of IPv4 due to existing IPv4 addresses has been fully utilized. As a result IPv6 has been found as it’s a calculation of hex rather than the binary of IPv4. Both of these 2 IP are based on the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) algorithm.
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
The Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) is a network protocol that builds a loop-free logical topology for Ethernet networks. The basic function of STP is to prevent bridge loops and the broadcast radiation that results from them. Spanning tree also allows a network design to include backup links to provide fault tolerance if an active link fails.
As the name suggests, STP creates a spanning tree within a network of connected layer-2 bridges, and disables those links that are not part of the spanning tree, leaving a single active path between any two network nodes. STP is based on an algorithm that was invented by Radia Perlman while she was working for Digital Equipment Corporation. STP was originally standardized as IEEE 802.1D but the functionality of spanning tree (802.1D) and main usage of such protocol are loop prevention and broadcast storm control.
Per-VLAN Spanning Tree (PVST)
Before the IEEE published a Spanning Tree Protocol standard for (Virtual Local Area Network) VLANs a number of vendors who sold VLAN capable switches developed their own Spanning Tree Protocol versions that were VLAN capable. Cisco developed, implemented and published the Per-VLAN Spanning Tree (PVST) proprietary protocol using its own proprietary Inter-Switch Link (ISL) for VLAN encapsulation, and PVST+ which uses 802.1Q VLAN encapsulation. Both standards implement a separate spanning tree for every VLAN. Cisco switches now commonly implement PVST+ and can only implement Spanning Trees for VLANs if the other switches in the LAN implement the same VLAN STP protocol. This STP defined all VLAN as an independent area with VLAN segregation and may use it as VLAN load balancing for layer 2 topology as well.
Hot Standby Routing Protocol (HSRP)
HSRP is Cisco’s standard method of providing high network availability by providing first-hop redundancy for IP hosts on an IEEE 802 LAN configured with a default gateway IP address. HSRP routes IP traffic without relying on the availability of any single router. It enables a set of router interfaces to work together to present the appearance of a single virtual router or default gateway to the hosts on a LAN. When HSRP is configured on a network or segment, it provides a virtual Media Access Control (MAC) address and an IP address that is shared among a group of configured routers. HSRP allows two or more HSRP-configured routers to use the MAC address and IP network address of a virtual router. The virtual router does not exist; it represents the common target for routers that are configured to provide backup to each other. One of the routers is selected to be the active router and another to be the standby router, which assumes control of the group MAC address and IP address should the designated active router fail.