Cisco Certification after Changes

Products Categories Latest Passed Date Dumps
04.4.2020 Get Now
04.5.2020 Get Now
Cisco Lab
CCIE Security Lab
CCIE Wireless Lab
CCIE Colla Lab
Get Now
PMP PMP Exams 04.5.2020 Get Now
AWS AWS Exam 04.5.2020 Get Now
ISC CISSP 04.3.2020 Get Now


SPOTO, founded in 2003, concentrates on IT Certification training, included Cisco exam, PMP exam AWS exam, CISSP exam, RedHat Linux exam and other IT exams. Over 17 years, SPOTO helped tens of thousands of candidates achieve their Cisco CCNA, CCNP, CCIE, PMP, CISSP, AWS certification, conveying numerous IT employees to Fortune 500 companies.
SPOTO stands for Service, Professional, Outstanding, Teamwork and Obtain. SPOTO is dedicated to providing best Service, with Professional and Outstanding Teams to help members Obtain IT certifications and cutting-edge technology.

07 Apr

Pearson VUE Testing Center Closures: What it Means for Learners

To address growing concerns about the COVID-19 pandemic, Pearson VUE has closed its testing sites in the United States and Canada until April 16.

Pearson VUE operating test centers for suppliers such as Cisco and Linux announced the closure last week. Beyond the United States and Canada, Pearson VUE test centers will be closed on a case-by-case basis. The candidate should plan to reschedule the examination date from April 16.

Here are important details via Pearson VUE for exam takers to know:

If you have arranged an exam at a closed location, you will receive an email informing you of the cancellation. you will receive a refund or extension (determined by your exam sponsor).

If you intend to arrange the exam, you will not be able to register until April 16 or when the exam center is reopened.

For those who have been canceled, Pearson VUE said they will help them reschedule the exam once the exam center is reopened. and as mentioned earlier, some suppliers may extend the life of their test coupons.

Current suppliers using Pearson VUE for certification examinations include:





you can search other suppliers on the Pearson VUE website. Pearson VUE closure can be boring for many learners, especially those trying to get certification for their upcoming retirement. Nevertheless, it was gratifying to learn that Pearson VUE had been proactive in responding to the spread of COVID-19 and working to ensure the safety of the candidates.

But not all candidates are lucky. A lot of suppliers don't use Pearson VUE to manage their certification exams, which means you can take them in your comfortable home:


AWS–(AWS Certified Cloud Practitioner)



we suggest checking the supplier's certification page to determine if they use the Pearson VUE for the certification examination. You can also try to contact the supplier through customer support or social means to get details of the certification test.

please note that most suppliers providing their own test tests require you to create an account with them before registering for the test.

Another option explored in online supervision. Some suppliers provide online guidance for certain examinations. please note that this will be the cost associated with these services-and pay close attention to system requirements for online ordering.

Not surprisingly, suppliers are stepping up efforts to support learners affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. CompTIA has extended to 30 June 2020 all certification documents that are scheduled to expire from 17 March to 30 April 2020. CompTIA also hopes to provide candidates with the ability to conduct certification examinations remotely in the coming weeks.

From March 16, Cisco extended the validity of valid certification by six months. so assume your Cisco certification will expire on March 30, 2020; now it will expire on September 30, 2020.

Cisco also announced that it would be valid and that the validity of unused and unexpired test coupons would be extended by six months from March 16. In addition, any examination coupons purchased in the next three months will expire within 18 months from the beginning of their validity period. Procurement.

On 26 March, Microsoft also announced changes to support learners who may be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. The biggest thing is that they extend their MCSA, MCSD and MCSE certified retirement dates from 30 June 2020 to 31 January 2021 to give learners more time to obtain these certificates.

Microsoft also extended the validity of its role-based certificate by six months, which expires from now until December 31, 2020. For example, suppose you have a certificate based on the Microsoft role that has been set to expire on 30 September 2020 and that certificate will now expire on 30 March 2021.

Last but not least, if you have a certificate of Microsoft certification examination obtained through the Pearson VUE, which expires from 26 March 2020 to 31 August 2020, it will be extended to 31 January 2021.

If you intend to wait until Pearson VUE reopens its testing center, you have at least one month of study time. Use this time wisely and you can avoid taking exams. or know you have more time to review any concepts that may still be a little vague, please gasp a little.

Just a reminder that you can use SPOTO full access to exam preparation resources such as practice exams, virtual labs, and accountability coaches.

Good luck studying for your next exam.

03 Apr

New Cisco CCNA Cyber Ops: Are You Consider Yourself Ready for Security Analysis?

Cybersecurity is considered to be one of the most talked-about as well as crucial topics within the IT industry, with companies immediately protecting their network, reputation, as well as customer secrecy from would-be assaulters. It is believed to be a constant fight to keep your systems, procedures, and staff advanced on the newest cybersecurity risks on a routine basis.

Overview of Cisco’s CCNA Cyber Ops Certification

CCNA Cyber Ops certification would be preparing candidates for beginning a career working with associate-level cybersecurity analysts within security operations centers. Cisco would have planned the CCNA Cyber Ops certification path for enabling the Cyber Analysts working within SOC (Security Operations Center) for determining potential threats as well as stop them in their tracks. Gaining the certification would be difficult unless you acquire good and reliable training courses like offered at the SPOTO Club.

CCNA Cyber Ops

CCNA Cyber Ops certification would prepare applicants for beginning their career serving with associate-level cybersecurity analysts within the SOC which would be offered by Cisco. They would be learning how to discover as well as responding to security menaces utilizing the latest technology, as such jobs would be required the knowledge of crucial cybersecurity as well as morals. It would be evaluating individuals on the skills which would be required to support monitoring IT security systems, detecting cyber-attacks, analyzing and gathering evidence, correlating details, as well as coordinating responses to cyber incidents.

Whether you would be looking forward to strengthening your resume to land your first job in the IT industry or just desiring to continue education for supporting you in a current career, Cisco certification is considered to be an excellent choice. CCNA Cyber Ops practice test could be assisting you in preparing for your exam and providing you the knowledge as well as confidence that you would be requiring to do your best.

Why you should achieve the Cisco CCNA Cyber Ops Certification?

There would be many cybersecurity certifications presently available on the market and selecting the right one for you would be dependent on several elements. Every certification path would be having its pros and cons. It would be eventually up to you to decide which would be better for you. CCNA Cyber Ops Certification comes from Cisco. Both Cisco, as well as its certifications, is considered to be highly honored across the IT industry; thousands of professionals would have achieved Cisco’s certifications, as well as its apparatus, could be found entire the world. This legacy would be providing the CCNA Cyber Ops a degree of legality among employers. If you would be working within a SOC, or aiming to work in one, then CCNA Cyber Ops certification should be high on your list of qualifications for obtaining.

Why Choose CCNA Cyber Ops?

Begin a career in the rapidly growing area of cybersecurity operations at the Associate level, operating in or with a SOC (Security Operations Center).

Gain the fundamental abilities and knowledge for preparing for more advanced job roles in Cybersecurity Operations, working with the Security Operations team

Obtaining a basic understanding of how a SOC team would be detecting and responding to security incidents, as well as how they would be defending their organization’s details from modern threats.


If you would be interested in taking your career opportunities to the next level as well as desiring to enlist in a CCNA Cyber Ops certification, then practice test, as well as other study materials, would be the best way to clear the exam. Hence, if you wish to make your career in Cybersecurity, you should acquire this certification and for that, you need to gain the study dumps offered by the SPOTO Club to achieve success.

03 Apr


1. Why do we need LSA

If we want to know what LSA is, we have to start with Packets. OSPF uses a total of 5 packets to establish a neighbor.

The first Packages are HELLO:

Establish and maintain OSPF neighbor relationships. Hello packets are sent periodically (by default, 10 seconds) to neighboring router interfaces.

If the Hello packet sent by the OSPF router of the other party is not received within a fixed time (default 40 seconds, usually at least 4 times indirect of the Hello packet sending time), the local router will consider the other router invalid.

The second Packets is DBD:

That is, the link-state database description information --- The link-state database description information is exchanged between the two routers.

DBD Packets are exchanged for database synchronization when two OSPF routers initiate a connection

The third package is LSR

Link state request-request link state information from OSPF neighbors

LSR Packets are used to request part of the data in the link-state database of neighboring routers.

After the two routers have exchanged DBD Packets with each other, they know which LSAs of the peer routers do not have in the LSDB, and which LSAs have expired, then they need to send an LSR Packets to request the required LSA from the other party.

The fourth Packets is LSU

That is, link-state update --- update one or more LSAs, eigrp and rip are specific routing entries when updating routes, and two OSPF routers are updating LSAs, LSA is a route that specifically describes link status the way. LSU Packets is used to send the required LSAs to the peer router at the request of LSR Packets. The content is a complete set of multiple LSAs. The content of the LSU Packets includes the total number of LSAs sent and the complete content of each LSA.

The fifth Packets is LSAck

LSAck Packets are the acknowledgment packets sent by the router after receiving the LSU Packets from the peer.

2.LSA Types :

At present, there are 11 types of LSAs in OSPF, but at present, there are only 6 types of lsa that are commonly used or CCIE exams.

In the picture below, you need to know the type of the specific description name of each lsa

  • LSA Detailed:

Type 1--Router LSAs

Each router in the area generates a Router LSA, which includes all direct link information. Each direct link information describing the router contains link information such as link type, IP prefix and mask, and metric. The source router (publishing router) is identified by the Router ID. It only floods in the area and does not cross the ABR.

Producer: All routers

Role: Announce the information of its direct connection port

Scope of announcement: only in this area

Note: In networks that need to elect a DR, the type 1 LSA does not include a mask.

Type2--Network LSAs

Network LSAs have a premise that they must appear under the broadcast multiple access network / broadcast multiple access networks.

The DR routers on this network generate a network LSA, which contains the multi-access link (list of all directly connected routers, the subnet mask of the link), floods only in the area, and does not cross the ABR

Produced by: DR

Purpose: Notification mask

Scope of announcement: only in this area

Type-3 Summary LSAs

Type 3 LSAs are generated by ABR area border routers and are used to flood the routing information calculated by the LSAs generated in this area to other areas-describing the network number and mask of the link.

The three types of LSAs carry routing information, and routes are not summarized. Type 3 LSAs will be advertised to each subnet.

Produced by: ABR

Role: Summarize categories 1 and 2 in this area and notify to other areas

Announcement scope: the entire OSPF network

Note: The essence is routing information, which has the characteristics of distance vectors. Non-zero areas are prohibited from directly transmitting Type 3 LSA

Type-5 Autonomous system external LSA

External (type 5) LSA is used to announce the information from other external networks (outside world AS).

Type 5 LSA originates from ASBR and is advertised by ASBR. Type 5 LSAs transmit routing information.

Type 5 LSAs are flooded throughout the autonomous system. The advertised router ID (ASBR) does not change throughout the autonomous system flood.

Type 4 LSAs are used to find ASBRs. By default, routes are not summarized.

Produced by: ASBR

Role: Advertise external routing information

Announcement scope: the entire OSPF network

Type-4 Summary LSAs

Category 5 LSAs only advertise the entire as 65001 networks to the outside world routes, but for other areas, such as AREA 0 and AREA 2, only the outside world is known, but the specific exit location of the outside world is not known, so type 4 LSA are used to notify ASBR specific locations to other areas throughout the home-made system,

The Type 4 LSA is generated by the ABR in the starting area. Flooded by other ABRs to the entire autonomous system.

The Type 4 LSA contains the router ID of the ASBR. The Type 4 LSA follows the anti-ring mechanism of the Type 3 LSA.

Produced by: ABR in the ASBR area

Role: Announce ASBR location

Announcement scope: the entire OSPF network

Type-7  Defined for not-so-stubby areas

NSSA External (type 7) LSA is used to advertise information from other external networks in the NSSA area.

Type 7 LSA originates from ASBRs in the NSSA area and is advertised. Type 7 LSAs carry routing information.

Type 7 LSA floods in the NSSA area. When the entire autonomous system is flooded across the NSSA area boundary, it is converted from ABR to type 5 LSA.

The Type 4 LSA does not exist in the NSSA area to find the ASBR, instead of the Forwarding Address.

When the Forwarding Address in other areas is unreachable, the route passed by the seven-to-five LSA will not be written into the routing table.

Produced by: ASBR

Role: Advertise external routing information

Announcement scope: NSSA area

We have more theoretical materials and experimental documents here, if you need, please leave your information on the website, we will send the materials to you

Have any question for us?